'unknown' vs. 'any'

TypeScript 3.0 introduces unknown type, according to their wiki:

unknown is now a reserved type name, as it is now a built-in type. Depending on your intended use of unknown, you may want to remove the declaration entirely (favoring the newly introduced unknown type), or rename it to something else.

What is difference between unknown and any? When should we use unknown over any?


You can read more about unknown in the PR or the RC announcement, but the gist of it is:

[..] unknown which is the type-safe counterpart of any. Anything is assignable to unknown, but unknown isn't assignable to anything but itself and any without a type assertion or a control flow based narrowing. Likewise, no operations are permitted on an unknown without first asserting or narrowing to a more specific type.

A few example:

let vAny: any = 10;          // We can assign anything to any
let vUnknown: unknown =  10; // We can assign anything to unknown just like any 

let s1: string = vAny;     // Any is assignable to anything 
let s2: string = vUnknown; // Invalid we can't assign vUnknown to any other type (without an explicit assertion)

vAny.method();     // ok anything goes with any
vUnknown.method(); // not ok, we don't know anything about this variable

The suggested usage is:

There are often times where we want to describe the least-capable type in TypeScript. This is useful for APIs that want to signal “this can be any value, so you must perform some type of checking before you use it”. This forces users to safely introspect returned values.

The difference between unknown and any is described as:

Much like any, any value is assignable to unknown; however, unlike any, you cannot access any properties on values with the type unknown, nor can you call/construct them. Furthermore, values of type unknown can only be assigned to unknown or any.

To answer your question of when should you use unknown over any:

This is useful for APIs that want to signal “this can be any value, so you must perform some type of checking before you use it”. This forces users to safely introspect returned values.

Take a look at the TypeScript 3.0 announcement for examples of type checking a variable of type unknown and a more detailed explanation.

any type:

The any type represents all possible JS values. Every type is assignable to type any. Therefore the type any is an universal supertype of the type system. The TS compiler will allow any operation on values typed any. For example:

let myVar: any;

new myVar();

In many occasions this is too lenient of the TS compiler. i.e. it will allow operations which we could have known to be resulting into a runtime error.

unknown type:

The unknown type represents (just like any) all possible JS values. Every type is assignable to type unknown. Therefore the type unknown is another universal supertype of the type system (alongside any). However, the TS compiler won't allow any operation on values typed unknown. Furthermore, the unknown type is only assignable to the type any. An example will clarify this:

let myVar: unknown;

let myVar1: unknown = myVar;   // No error
let myVar2: any = myVar;       // No error
let myVar3: boolean = myVar;   // Type 'unknown' is not assignable to type 'boolean'

// The following operations on myVar all give the error:
// Object is of type 'unknown'
new myVar();

any, unknown:

  • allows to assign any type


  • allows to be assigned to any type
  • does allow to call any method


  • doesn't allow to be assigned to any type
  • doesn't allow to call any method
const a: any = 'a'; // OK
const b: unknown = 'b' // OK

const v1: string = a; // OK
const v2: string = b; // ERROR
const v3: string = b as string; // OK

a.trim() // OK
b.trim() // ERROR

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  • 自动断行和分段。
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